The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) promotes the accuracy, fairness, and privacy of information in the files of the nation's consumer reporting companies. The FTC enforces the FCRA with respect to these companies. Recent amendments to the FCRA expand consumer rights and place additional requirements on consumer reporting companies. Businesses that provide information about consumers to consumer reporting companies and businesses that use credit reports also have new responsibilities under the law.
Here are answers to some of the questions consumers have asked the FTC about consumer reports and consumer reporting companies
Q. Do I have a right to know what's in my report?
A. You have the right to know what's in your report, but you have to ask for the information. The consumer reporting company must tell you everything in your report, and give you a list of everyone who has requested your report within the past year — or the past two years if the requests were related to employment.
Q. What type of information do consumer reporting companies collect and sell?
A. Consumer reporting companies collect and sell four basic types of information:
- Identification and employment information: Your name, birth date, Social Security number, employer, and spouse's name are noted routinely. The consumer reporting company also may provide information about your employment history, home ownership, income, and previous address, if a creditor asks.
- Payment history: Your accounts with different creditors are listed, showing how much credit has been extended and whether you've paid on time. Related events, such as the referral of an overdue account to a collection agency, also may be noted.
- Inquiries: Consumer reporting companies must maintain a record of all creditors who have asked for your credit history within the past year, and a record of individuals or businesses that have asked for your credit history for employment purposes for the past two years.
- Public record information: Events that are a matter of public record, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, or tax liens, may appear in your report.
A. Under the Free File Disclosure Rule of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACT Act), each of the nationwide consumer reporting companies — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion — is required to provide you with a free copy of your credit report once every 12 months, if you ask for it.
Q: How do I order my free report?
A: The three nationwide consumer reporting companies are using one website, one toll-free telephone number, and one mailing address for consumers to order their free annual report. To order, click on annualcreditreport.com, call 1-877-322-8228, or complete theAnnual Credit Report Request Form and mail it to: Annual Credit Report Request Service, P.O. Box 105281, Atlanta, GA 30348-5281. The form is at the back of this brochure; or you can print it from ftc.gov/credit. Do not contact the three nationwide consumer reporting companies individually. You may order your free annual reports from each of the consumer reporting companies at the same time, or you can order them one at a time. The law allows you to order one free copy from each of the nationwide consumer reporting companies every 12 months.
Q: What information do I have to provide to get my free report?
A: You need to provide your name, address, Social Security number, and date of birth. If you have moved in the last two years, you may have to provide your previous address. To maintain the security of your file, each nationwide consumer reporting company may ask you for some information that only you would know, like the amount of your monthly mortgage payment. Each company may ask you for different information because the information each has in your file may come from different sources.
Still, annualcreditreport.com is the only authorized online source for your free annual credit report from the three nationwide consumer reporting companies. Neither the website nor the companies will call you first to ask for personal information or send you an email asking for personal information. If you get a phone call or an email — or see a pop-up ad — claiming it's from annualcreditreport.com(or any of the three nationwide consumer reporting companies), it's probably a scam. Don't reply or click on any link in the message. Instead, forward any email that claims to be from annualcreditreport.com (or any of the three consumer reporting companies) email@example.com, the FTC's database of deceptive spam.Q: Are there other situations where I might be eligible for a free report?
A: Under federal law, you're entitled to a free report if a company takes adverse action against you, such as denying your application for credit, insurance, or employment, and you ask for your report within 60 days of receiving notice of the action. The notice will give you the name, address, and phone number of the consumer reporting company. You're also entitled to one free report a year if you're unemployed and plan to look for a job within 60 days; if you're on welfare; or if your report is inaccurate because of fraud, including identity theft. Otherwise, any of the three consumer reporting companies may charge you up to $10.50 for another copy of your report within a 12-month period.
To buy a copy of your report, contact:
Under state law, consumers in Colorado, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Vermont already have free access to their credit reports.
For more information, see Your Access to Free Credit Reports at ftc.gov/credit.
Q. What is a credit score, and how does it affect my ability to get credit?
A: Credit scoring is a system creditors use to help determine whether to give you credit, and how much to charge you for it.
Information about you and your credit experiences, like your bill-paying history, the number and type of accounts you have, late payments, collection actions, outstanding debt, and the age of your accounts, is collected from your credit application and your credit report. Using a statistical formula, creditors compare this information to the credit performance of consumers with similar profiles. A credit scoring system awards points for each factor. A total number of points — a credit score — helps predict how creditworthy you are; that is, how likely it is that you will repay a loan and make the payments on time. Generally, consumers who are good credit risks have higher credit scores.
You can get your credit score from the three nationwide consumer reporting companies, but you will have to pay a fee for it. Many other companies also offer credit scores for sale alone or as part of a package of products.
For more information, see Need Credit or Insurance? Your Credit Score Helps Determine What You’ll Pay at ftc.gov/credit.